December 15 - December 18, 2022 / Web Conference International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Decision-Making in Business Practice
December 15 - December 18, 2022Web Conference



Foreword by the Rector

International Islamic University Malaysia

Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah subhanahu wata'ala for granting us the opportunity to organize this symposium. Decision making pervades all human activities at all levels - individual, family, organization and society. Decision making became more challenging as human civilization has reached a high degree of complexity characterized by globalization, competition, interdependence and advanced technology. This symposium is timely because it provides the decision makers the tools for facing difficult greater challenges in the real world. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the main theme of the symposium. AHP method helps decision makers to prioritize the criteria they select in their decision making process. AHP has proven to be an effective method for better quality decision making in many real-world decision making problems at local, regional, organizational and government levels.

This symposium aims at bringing together AHP scholars to share their research findings at both the theoretical and practical levels.

I would like to take this opportunity to welcome all speakers, paper presenters and participants to this symposium and wish all of you a fruitful event.

I would like to thank all sponsors and individuals who have contributed to the organization and success of this symposium.

I pray Allah subhanahu wata'ala to guide us all in our work for the betterment of our society.

Thank you, wassalam.

Prof. Dato' Sri Dr. Zaleha Kamarudin
International Islamic University Malaysia

Foreword by the Dean

Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim.

Praise be to the Almighty Allah (swt), for granting us the opportunity to organize the 12th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is pleased and feels honored to be the host of this prestigious biennial conference.

It is therefore a great pleasure to welcome all of you, speakers, presenters and participants who come from all corners of the globe to this auspicious conference. Welcome to Malaysia!

This conference is a timely event, bringing together the global community in enriching the field of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) in terms of research and applications. It is hoped that this field will contribute to improve on the well-being of mankind, and in particular in terms of better decision making.

I do hope that everyone will benefit from this conference and will bring forth new perspectives in decision making. It is also hoped that the knowledge gained in this conference will be applied in everyday decision making process both at organizational as well as individual levels.

On behalf of the Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Science (KENMS), I would like to take this opportunity to thank the organizing committees, both the international committee and the local committee, the staff from the Department of Business Administration, and everyone whether directly or indirectly, who have been dedicated to ensure the success of this conference.

I pray to Allah (swt) to bless this conference with His Mercy and Bounties. I wish you all the best and hope your presence in Kuala Lumpur would be a memorable one.

Thank you and wassalam.

Prof. Dr. Khaliq Ahmad
Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences

Foreword by the Honorary Founding Chairman

Professor Thomas L. Saaty, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Our world today is more and more moving from fragmentation to integration becoming better unified and interactive in its economics, information sharing, travel, diplomacy, and in medical instruments and the importance of health and even in waging wars. There is more freedom for individuals to express themselves. It is by having a one world view that we will be able to make the best decisions. As more people express themselves, they need a way to make decisions together. Conflicts can be resolved rationally and peacefully if concessions can be traded off and by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) which allows for the measurement of intangibles alongside tangibles, better decisions can be made about the tradeoffs. Seeing the big picture and being able to combine pieces of thinking, including positive and negative aspects of the problem, are made possible by combining analysis and synthesis scientifically in a manner that makes sense to our brain. In making group decisions, by building the model together we can incorporate different expertise and allow varying levels of authorities to be represented.

Overall change and the acceleration of change influences human psychology. We as individuals and as groups seem unable to cope with the unpredictable change and growing complexity in the world. Stress, uncertainty and frustration increase, minds are overloaded with information and knowledge fragments and values erode. Negative developments are consistently overemphasized, while positive ones are ignored. The resulting climate is one of nihilism, anxiety and despair. While the wisdom gathered in the past has lost much of its validity, we don't have a clear vision of the future either. As a result, we need something new to guide our actions. We don't have works to embrace that lay out the society of the future and how it needs to be to accommodate both technological changes and worldwide integration of cultures and mores. That would be a big positive step to overcome of the challenges of today and tomorrow. Nationalistic politics also needs to be more world-oriented than for each country to increase its influence and power. But the world still does not operate with national freedoms and still works with many oppressive regimes. Decision making at such high levels could be valuable to inculcate in our educational system so people can better judge what the priorities should be.

According to the Swiss born French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 –1778), original ("Natural") man had no language, no abstract thought, no moral ideas and no society. He was self-centered but not cruel and felt compassion for his kind. Social living brought about radical psychological changes. Rousseau's view is that self-love turned into aggressive competitive hostility and a state of war among men. Social life is characterized by the alienation of men from nature, from each other and from authentic selves. The conflicting demands of instinctual nature are constantly at war with the impositions of society. The cure requires the fabrication of a new man and the proper political institutions. It is not enough for men to obey the laws. Their minds and wills must also be engaged.

Someone wrote about "Changing the World" as follows: Yesterday I was clever so I wanted to change the world. Today I am wise, so I want to change myself.

These proceedings have been edited by able scholars which makes them officially valuable like any professional journal. I wish all the participants an enriching symposium. The excellent efforts engaged by the international scientific committee and the local organizing to organize this symposium are laudable.

Prof. Dr. Thomas L. Saaty
Honorary Founding Chairman

Foreword by the Chairman

12th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, Kuala Lumpur

Praise be to Allah (subhānahu watacāla), the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful for His divine bounty to organize and host the 12th International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Network Process (ISAHP 2013).

On behalf of the International Islamic University Malaysia and bSure Solutions Bhd, I would like to extend heartiest welcome to all the presenters and participants to the ISAHP 2013 and welcome to Malaysia! We are deeply honoured by your strong support and patronage to ISAHP 2013 to make it a reality and hopefully a success.

The task of decision-making is intimately associated with our lives. It plays a very important role to shape our careers, to shape our lives, and consequently to shape the whole world. Right decisions made by politicians, government machineries, leaders-managers and the social activists will make the world better and worth-living. Researchers have tirelessly and continuously pursued developing methods that people can use to make meaningful decisions. Two such methods are Analytic Hierarchy Process or AHP and its extension Analytic Network Process or ANP developed by Professor Thomas L. Saaty of University of Pittsburgh, USA. Over the last five decades numerous people all over the world have used these methods to come up with their decisions. The methods have been embraced by social activists, business leaders, and politicians alike. The common goal has been to make this world a better place of living. Therefore, ISAHP 2013 theme "Better world through better decision making" has been a fitting tribute to AHP and ANP.

We have received over hundred papers from more than 25 countries on various aspects of AHP and ANP – theory as well as applications. The applications cover varieties of areas such as, supply-chain management, environmental management, information systems, banking and finance, logistics and transportation, risk management, group decisions making, education, sustainable development, Project management, healthcare, performance evaluation, strategic planning, etc. I hope that the participants will find the presentations, discussions, and deliberations on varieties of areas of AHP and ANP interesting and useful. We also hope that this ISAHP will be able to generate more new ideas on further development of theory and applications of AHP and ANP that would further enhance the quality of decision making. I wish all the participants a beneficial, fulfilling and enlightening symposium.

Appreciation goes to the IIUM top management, Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences and Department of Business Administration of IIUM, and the Bsure Solutions for their approval and all the necessary support to organize this symposium. I thank wholeheartedly Professor Thomas L. Saaty of University of Pittsburgh and Rozann Saaty of Creative Decisions Foundation for supporting us in all possible ways. I take this opportunity to thank the international scientific committee members, my deputy, the secretary, and all other local organizing committee members for their hard work, commitment and dedication in organizing this symposium. Profuse thanks to all the presenters, participants, sponsors, student volunteers and well-wishers and all other people who have directly or indirectly contributed to make ISAHP 2013 a success. May God bless us all! Ameen!

Prof. Dr. Rafikul Islam
12th International Symposium on the AHP/ANP